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Appendix Further Reading – Yeast Donut Technical Article Introduction. 36 | P a g e w w w . d o n u t e d v d . c o m A l l R i g h t s R e s e r v e d 2 0 2


Remember, Yeast Raised Donuts are not cakes, but are living systems due to the yeast fermenting the dough. The fermentation is vital to the end product. Always trust  1 fermentation in making yeast donuts. It is extremely rare for any production problems to originate from excess fermentation of the yeast donut. It is better to think of a yeast donut as a fried bread product. There is usually more than one way to solve any one problem in yeast donuts. However, there is usually only one way that will solve the problem without creating new problems.

Never underestimate the importance of fermentation in yeast donuts. The fermentation process is a complex series of reactions that produces carbon dioxide, alcohol, and other chemicals. The pH level of the donut dough drops as the fermentation continues. These chemicals and the yeast activity mellow the wheat gluten. The result is a far superior dough that has better volume, shelf life and taste. When yeast is first added to the donut dough, it is still in a relatively dormant state induced by the final stages of its manufacturing process.

This is especially true if dried yeast is being used. Proof times are very short when compared to bread and it is vital to take advantage of every opportunity to gain fermentation during this short process. If no pre-fermented dough (Scrap) or brew is added to the dough, the yeast activity is relatively low. The semi dormant yeast will still produce carbon dioxide to leaven the dough, but the other byproducts will not be produced that give the donut dough its strength. High sugar levels and salt will retard fermentation, high water levels speed up fermentation.

Since these factors cannot be changed, the only good way to get adequate fermentation is by controlling temperature, time and yeast levels. Low levels of sugar act as food for yeast and sugar will speed up the fermentation. However, at the higher sugar levels, the osmotic pressure exerted by the sugar will slow down the yeast. In a lean yeast donut sugar will speed up fermentation, but in a rich dough, the sugar will slow it down. It is vital to be aware of this difference. The goal of fermentation is matching the time when the yeast is producing the maximum amount of carbon dioxide and when the gluten is the strongest. This will produce yeast raised donuts with the best volume.

Age and development of yeast donuts†fermentation is one of the most import aspects of yeast donut production. Lack of fermentation of yeast donuts is also the number one issue in bakeries that are having problems. Age or fermentation can come from three sources, biochemical, chemical, and mechanical development. Biochemical age comes from the metabolic activity of the yeast (fermentation). The longer the yeast donut dough and the flour is exposed to fermentation, the older the dough is. This biochemical fermentation is due to the activity of the yeast and produces a variety of acids and alcohols that interact with the flour. Chemical age comes from additives added to the dough such as L cysteine, acids, and enzymes etc. that react with the flour and/or enhance the yeast environment. Mechanical age comes from mixing. A slightly over mixed dough will act like an old dough to a limited degree. The opposite will happen to a slightly under mixed dough. Using these principles, fermentation, mixing, and formulation will results in the correct parameters. For example, if your doughs are acting a little old, reduce mix time, fermentation or both. Scrap Dough and Yeast Donuts.